The Arabic script was evolved probably by the 6th century ce from Nabataeana dialect of Aramaic current in northern Arabia.
There was a considerable lapse of time before the history of Greek writing resumed at Byzantium. The Phoenician alphabet was adapted by The art of arabic calligraphy Greeks, then the Etruscans and Romans, and eventually became the Western alphabet as we know it today.
For everyday purposes a cursive script was employed: Book texts are written in separately made capitals often called uncialsbut in Greek paleographyexcept for the time-hallowed class of biblical uncials, the term is better avoided The art of arabic calligraphy columns of writing, with ample spaces between columns and good margins at head and foot.
Abul Aswad al Du'ali d. Bowl with Kufic Calligraphy10th century. It was considered one of the most beautiful scripts, as well as one of the most difficult to execute.
Others studied calligraphy to enter specific professions, such as that of chancery scribe. See Article History Calligraphy, the art of beautiful handwriting.
The reform of Arabic script With the increasing number of non-Arab Muslims, there was a greater need for facilitating reading and learning of Arabic. The width of the pen was also important: Carbon inks were then replaced by iron -gall inks made from a mixture of tannic acid made from oak galls soaked in waterferrous sulphate, and gum arabic.
Another factor was the type of pen used, which was made from a reed. The former, used especially for the copying of literature, aimed at clarity, regularity, and impersonality and often made an effect of beauty by their deliberate stylization. Iron-gall ink does have certain drawbacks: Later, though, this feature was used in other contexts because it was considered elegant.
Its contraction in space after the Arab conquests of the 7th century, which cut off the more distant and ethnically differentiated provinces of SyriaPalestineand Egyptmade it a relatively compact geographical entity. The so-called Moabite Stone also in the Louvrewhich dates from about bce, has an inscription that is also a famous example of early Semitic writing.
Toward the end of the 12th century, however, the prosperity and comparative stability of the Comnenan age named from the dynasty of Byzantine emperors bearing the name Comnenuswith its brilliant literary and artistic achievements, gave way to increasing internal chaos.
The enamel colours and gilding were then painted on - the enamel was a solution of colours and ground glass that melted and fused on to the lamp when it was reheated in a kiln. The use of cursive scripts coexisted with Kufic, but because in the early stages of their development they lacked discipline and elegance, cursive was usually used for informal purposes.
Pseudo-kufics is especially common in Renaissance depictions of people from the Holy Land. Few of these are celebrated in terms of aesthetic value. For Muslims the Quran is the actual Word of God revealed through the archangel Gabrielle to the Prophet of Islam during the twenty-three year period of his prophetic mission.
And characteristic forms are to be seen in the letters with its long crossbar, often with initial stroke ; upsilon with long shallow bowl; or in three or four strokes; in three strokes; alpha raised off the line and its last vertical not finished; small round with internal dot or tiny stroke ; and broad epigraphic and.
It is likely that the use as a pen of a hard reedsplit at the tip and cut into a nib which had to be constantly sharpenedis an invention of the Greeks. The black-letter, or Gothic, style [9th to 15th century] developed to write western European languages in the late Middle Ages.
These artists successfully integrated Islamic visual traditions, especially calligraphy, into contemporary, indigenous compositions. It was revealed in the Arabic language, which became therefore the language of Islam even for non-Arab Muslims.
This was important because the Arabic script is always cursive, or joined-up, and never has separate letters, as in printed English. The measuring system of Ibn Muqlah is based on a circle with a diameter that equals the height of the letter Alef. These inscriptions are stiff and angular in form.
In this theology, letters were seen as primordial signifiers and manipulators of the cosmos. Mural by artist, Sadequain Naqqash integrates calligraphy elements into a modern artwork Leading exponents of hurufiyyah art can be found in Jordan.
Window with the Shahadah, the Muslim profession of faith, carved stucco and coloured glass, Egypt, Thuluth is developed as a display script to decorate particular scriptural objects. These are the main criteria by which a formally written manuscript can be assigned to an earlier or a later part of this period.
But the problem of distinguishing different styles and their dates, and their places of origin, remains most difficult for these Greek manuscripts.
Fathah aDammah uKasrah iSukun vowellessShaddah double consonantand Maddah vowel prolongation which is applied to the Alef Fig.
There is no division between words, for the divisions are only those that arise from the rules for joining or otherwise of individual letters, and at this stage any letter that can be joined to the next one nearly always is joined to it.The Arabic language, and subsequently the art of calligraphy, is held in great esteem by Muslims because Arabic was the language in which the Qu’ran was revealed to.
These articles were prepared for Seattle Art Museum's Educational Resource Room, and can be adapted to accompany Arabic and Islamic calligraphy exhibitions at other museums as well.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage. It includes Arabic Calligraphy. Articles about calligraphy. Calligraphy in Islamic art History, materials and techniques. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
History of Arabic calligraphy Tools, techniques and paper, plus a look at some great Islamic calligraphers, by Mohamed Zakariya. Fayeq Oweis, Ph.D.
The Art of Arabic Calligraphy • Islamic Art and Arabic Calligraphy • General Features of Arabic Calligraphy • Development of Arabic Script & Calligraphy • Primary Styles, Samples & Features • Calligraphy & Architecture • Calligraphy & Fine Art • New Techniques & Applications. articles about the History of Arabic Calligraphy, Arabic Language Script, The Kufic Styles, and The Cursive Styles.Download